In adverbial clauses of purpose

Smb does/ did smth so that smb (should) not do smth. lest smb (should) do smth.

E.g.: Write down the date so that you (should) not forget about it.

lest you (should) forget about it.

Ex. 7Paraphrase the sentences as in the example:

E.g.: I’ll explain it to her again or she will make mistakes. – I’ll explain it to her again so that she shouldn’t make mistakes.

I’ll explain it to her again lest she should make mistakes. (purpose)

1. I told her about it or she would’ve heard it from somebody else.

2. I’ll stay with him for a day or two otherwise he’ll feel lonely.

3. They gave me a lift in their car or I would’ve missed the train.

4. I’ll speak very slowly or they will misunderstand me.

5. I’ll mark the place in the book or you’ll waste time looking for it.

6. In object subordinate clauses after expressions of fear + ‘lest’

fears (ed)/ Smb is/was afraid lest smb (should) do smth. worries (ed)

E.g.: I'm afraid lest I (should) fail my exams.

Ex. 8Paraphrase the sentences as in the example:

E.g.: He was afraid that the nurse might hear them talking. –

He was afraid lest the nurse should hear them talking. (object)

1. He was afraid he might miss her in the crowd.

2. She was overcome with fear that I might let her down.

3. He feared that his landlord would betray him to the Germans.

4. I worried that he might be afraid to play in public again.

5. I’m sure he’ll come, but I’m afraid that it will be too late.

Ex. 9Translate the sentences into Ukrainian and analyse them.

1. The doctor insisted that the patient be placed in hospital. 2. They recommended that I should repeat this course of treatment in a year. 3. I rejected his suggestion that I spend another day in the hospital. 4. The doctor said it was urgent that I see a heart specialist. 5. It’s advisable that he try the new treatment. 6. She turned away from the window lest anyone see them. 7. They demanded that an explanation should be given at once. 8. Brown insisted that the Smiths return the money immediately. 9. He paused, afraid lest he say too much. 10. The nurse reminded about the requirement that the patient take the medicine as instructed by the doctor. 11. It was requested that the speaker should touch upon the progress in modern linguistics. 12. Their demand was that the workers should have higher wages. 13. His order was that action be taken immediately. 14. He accepted my suggestion that we should go there by boat, with enthusiasm. 15. She worried lest he should tell someone what had happened. 16. She insisted that we hire a porter to help us with our suitcases. 17. His advice that we set up camp on the bank of the river was quite sensible. 18. The doctor recommended that I should return home as soon as hot weather set in. 19. He fidgeted with a basketball, anxious that the five-minute conversation should end. 20. They suggested that we should go sightseeing on the second day of our arrival. 21. She reserved a table so that she shouldn’t have to wait in a queue. 22. We insisted that the terms be made quite clear. 23. It was recommended that the mother stay with the child in the hospital.

Ex. 10Complete the sentences and state the type the subordinate clause which you add.

1. It is advisable that ……………………………….……………..

2. Her first suggestion was that …………………………………...

3. I can arrange that …………………………………….…………

4. What do you think of our plan that …………………….……..

5. I think it’s a good arrangement that …………………………....

6. Nobody demands that ………………………………………..…

7. She had only one wish that……………………………………..

8. I’ll give them some sandwiches so that ………………………..

9. The general rule is that …………………………………………

10. I’ll write down her address and telephone number lest ………

11. I say it again so that ……………………………………………

12. No one objected to her demand that …………………………..

Ex. 11Say it in English and analyse the sentences:

1. Важливо, щоб ви вжили усіх заходів безпеки.

2. Я запропонував, щоб Містер Кларк почав шукати нову роботу.

3. Я думаю, дуже важливо, щоб всі розуміли необхідність запропонованих заходів. (measures)

4. Її пропозиція була , щоб діти залишились на цей час з нянею.

5. Всім сподобалась його ідея, щоб ми приєднались до експедиції.

6. Не сперечайтеся, щоб потім не жалкувати.

7. Вони запропонували, щоб він переїхав до їх офісу в Лондоні.

8. Моя порада, щоб ви уникали їздити через центр міста.

9. Страйкуючі висунули вимогу, щоб їхні претензії були розглянуті правлінням заводу.

10. Необхідно, щоб ви віднеслися до цього з належною увагою.

11. Прибери цей камінь з дороги, щоб хто-небудь не перечепився.

12. Хто наполягає на тому, щоб це було зроблено сьогодні?



13. Чи це дійсно так необхідно, щоб їх покарали?

14. Вона ніколи не приймає снодійне, щоб не звикнути до нього.

15. Лікар рекомендував, щоб його пацієнти не купували без рецептурні (non-prescriрtion) ліки не порадившись з ним.

16. Було запропоновано, щоб меморандум був підписаний напередодні зустрічі у верхах.

Ex. 12 Students from several universities are coming to take part at the student’s conference. Work out your suggestions about how to arrange things for them: accommodation, meals, leisure time and so on.

Useful grammar for discussing it in groups: Let’s do …; Why don’t we do…; How about doing …; We could also do …; Shall we …?

Useful grammar for reporting your ideas: We suggest that …; Our idea is that …; I hope, everybody will support our suggestion that …; We think it’s important that …; … so that our guests shouldn’t …; So we agreed that…; It’s better that …, and so on.

Modal verb expressing advice ↓ Compare: Tom, you should find a job. (Тобі слід знайти роботу.) It is important that you should find a job. (Важливо, щоб …) ↑ Suppositional mood (only in sub-te clauses)

Ex. 13Read this page of advice from a travel guide and complete the sentences with ‘that-clauses’. Add your own ideas about Ukraine.

TRAVEL TIPS

E.g.: (A driver must keep to the right-hand side of the road.) In the United States and many European countries, it is essential that a driver (should) keep to the right-hand side of the road.

1. (Drivers have to stay on the left side of the road.)

In Japan and England, however, it is mandatory ………………

2. (People should remove their shoes before going inside a house.)

In some places, such as Japan and Saudi Arabia, it is important

3. (People should keep their shoes on.)

In other places, it is expected …………………………………

4. (People must not eat pork products.)

In some places, religious laws demand ………………………

5. (A sick person should be treated with modern medicine.)
In some places, doctors recommend ………………………

6. (A sick person should use herbal remedies.)
In other places, they advise ………………………………

7. (A waiter should be summoned by whistling.)

In some places, it is suggested …………………………………

8. (A waiter must not be summoned by whistling.)

In other places, it is important ……........................................... because this would be considered exceedingly rude.

9. (A traveler ought to learn about customs in various places.)

Logic suggests …………………………………………….….

Compare: Він просить мене допомогтипідготувати доповідь. Він просить, щоб я допомоглапідготувати доповідь.

Ex. 14Paraphrase using the suppositional mood.

E.g.: She advised us to keep the gate locked. –

She advised that we should keep the gate locked.

They agreed to repair the roof. –

They agreed that the roof should be repaired.

1. He arranged for me to go abroad.

2. He is anxious for the classes to start at once.

3. It won’t be necessary for him to report to the police.

4. It is only fair for him to have a chance.

5. It is only right for her to have a share.

6. He suggested drawing up a petition.

7. They arranged for the minister to be met at the airport.

8. She was determined to make him study music.

9. He ordered the goods to be sent by air.

10. It is advisable for everyone to have a map.

11. He suggested our trying homeopathic remedies.

12. It is better for him to hear it from you.

13. They stipulated for the best materials to be used.

14. It is essential for him to be prepared for this.

15. Why was she so anxious for me to stay?

Ex. 15Read the answer from an advice columnist. Then complete five sentences with subjunctive I that restate the columnist's suggestions.

To Mary in Montreal:

No one should have to put up with a dog that barks all night. First, it's essential for you to talk with your next-door neighbor. At the same time, though, it's important not to lose your temper while you're explaining your side of the issue. Ask your neighbor to bring the dog in at night. Stay calm. If she refuses, insist on her getting rid of the animal. If she doesn't do something about the problem, I'd recommend calling the animal control bureau. Pamela

1. It is essential that Mary …

2. It is important that Mary …while she’s explaining her side of the issue.

3. Mary should ask that her neighbor …

4. If she refuses, Mary should insist that she …

5. The columnist recommends that Mary … if her neighbor doesn't do something about the problem.

Ex. 16Choose the correct answers to complete the letter to the advice columnist and the columnist’s response.

a) Dear Pamela,

Two months ago, I lent a friend some of my old essays, and now I

(hope/wish) I hadn't. A few weeks later, I was horrified to learn that he had retyped one of my essays and handed it in to his teacher. When I demanded that he … (tell / tells) the teacher the truth, he acted … (as though / if only) he'd done nothing wrong. Now I'm afraid that, if the teacher … (finds / find) out he cheated, I'll be blamed. … (What if / If so) I get kicked out of school? … Had I … (know/ known) that my friend was so dishonest, I wouldn't have let him borrow my essays. I really wish he … (will / would) tell the teacher the truth, but I don't think he will. I'm really upset about this situation, but I do … (hope / wish) we can remain friends. What should I do?

Distressed

Dear Distressed,

I don't know what the rules at your school are, but I suggest that you …….… (speak / will speak) with an advisor. If another student ………… (has done / will do) something wrong, you probably won't be blamed for it. And if I … (was/were) you, I'd drop that friend. ………. (If not /What if) he tried to take advantage of you again?

Pamela

b) Dear Pamela,

My sister and I are close, even though we live in different cities. The problem is, whenever she and her family come to visit, they never give me any notice. I really ….. (hope/wish) they wouldn't do this. Just three weeks ago, she and her family dropped by unexpectedly and stayed for six days. …. (Have/Had) I known they were going to show up, I ……….… (will have / would have had) time to clean the house and prepare some food. I ended up running around like crazy trying to get organized. Should I say something to her? If I …….. (was / were) to tell her that her unexpected visits cause me stress, she might … (feel / have felt) insulted. I really hope you (can / could) help me with this problem.

Stressed Out

Dear Stressed Out,

Honey, it's time you …….… (tell/told) your sister your true feelings. You don't have to be rude. Just say, "I'd rather you …. (called / were to call) us before you come to visit." If your sister …….. (feels/felt) insulted, it's her problem, not yours. It's essential that you ………. (learn / would learn), to say no to demands that are unreasonable. ……. (What if / Otherwise) she tried to pull the same stunt at a friend's house? In fact, the next time she and her family drop by unannounced, you might want to suggest that they ……… (check / will check) into a hotel instead.

Pamela

Ex. 17We sometimes find ourselves in conflict with our relatives, neighbours or even close friends. Tell your group-mates about a problem you’ve got as in the examples above and ask them to give you some advice.

Ex. 18Read the letter and correct the eight verb errors. Give advice to Helen using Subjunctive I or the Suppositional mood in that-clauses’.

December 10

Dear April,

I wanted to write and fill you in on what's been happening since I left Ponders. I finally got a job! Remember when you suggested I just went walking around, getting a sense of what Atlanta was like? A few weeks ago I was really getting worried, and I had spent almost all the money I had saved up to tide me over until I found work. I had got to the point where it was absolutely essential that I found something or just came home. So I decided to follow your advice. Had I know how easy this would be, I would have tried it in the first week I was here. I started walking around in the downtown area, and before I knew it, I saw a beautiful little florist's shop. I walked right in as if I have courage and experience and asked whether they needed anyone. Can you believe that they did? I was really happy in my job until my boss hired a new assistant manager who has been making my life miserable. He treats me as if I be his personal slave. I took this job to work with plants, not to serve him coffee. I think it's time I'm telling him where I stand.

I have a few days off for the holidays. What if I had come home as a surprise to Mom and Dad? Could we plan some kind of party? Write and let me know, OK?

Love, Helen.

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Emotional ‘should’

We can use ‘should’ in ‘that-clauses’ when we talk about our own reaction to something we are reporting. In this case ‘should’ is a modal verb adding emotional colouring to the statement. The perfect infinitive is used when referring to past events which preceded the action of the main clause. Notice that when we leave out ‘should’ we use the indicative mood, not subjunctive I.

A concerned amazed be happening I’m disappointed that something should happen surprised have happened upset

E.g.: I am concerned that she should think I stole the money.

I am concerned that she thinks I stole the money.

B amazing annoying be happening It is/was disappointing that something should happen ridiculous have happened strange

E.g.: It’s amazing that she should have said nothing about the murder.

It’s amazing that she said nothing about the murder.

Ex. 1Fill in the correct form of the infinitive after emotional ‘should’.

1. It's ridiculous that we have to wait six weeks to receive the information.

2. It’s strange that the results of the official investigation have been kept a secret for so long.

3. It’s annoying that they don’t believe me.

4. She was surprised that there was no one there to greet her.

5. I was disappointed that we had lost though we played so well.

6. Your father is astonished that he’s heard nothing from you for weeks.

Ex. 2 Identify ‘should’ as a modal verb for emotional colouring or an auxiliary verb for the Suppositional mood.

1. It’s ridiculous that we should be short of water in a country where it is always raining. 2. It’s recommended that you get some professional advice. 3. I suggest you should phone before you go round there. 4. I’m sorry that you should have had a row with Pat. 5. Experts advise that sunscreen should be reapplied every one to two hours. 6. It's strange that we should never have met before. 7. It's outrageous that the poor should pay such high taxes. 8. It’s important that everyone should pay taxes.

Ex. 3Supply the necessary forms for the verbs given in brackets in subject subordinate clauses. Give two variants where possible:

E.g.: It’s outrageous that he should be/ is so rude with his sister.

It was important that they should make up/ make up their quarrel.

1. He had spent the first part of the night lying rigid and telling him­self how important it was that he …(sleep). 2. It's wonderful that they …(give) you a present. 3. It was arranged that his wife …(join) him in six months. 4. It was all wrong that someone so young … (be) so ill. 5. She listened in silence to Mel's explanation why it was essential that he … (remain) at the airport. 6. It's not fair that the girl … (be sent) to bed so early on a day like this. 7. It had long been decided that I …(spend) a fourth year at Cambridge doing psychology. 8. It was advisable that she … (continue) the treatment. 9. It was unnatural the way he … (keep) his feeling in check. 11. It was amazing that this coarse man … (be) so worried about a dog. 12. It was arranged that I …(pick) up Hudson at his flat after lunch. 13. It’s obviously necessary that an investigation … (be made)

Ex. 4Say it in English.

1. Порадили, щоб ми відправили посилку морем. 2. Наприкінці було вирішено, что вони організують вечірку. 3. В цьому випадку суттєво, щоб він не наробив помилок. 4. Домовились, що ми зустрінемось в кафе за чашкою кави. 5. Було дивно, що вона так розсердилась через підгорілий обід. 6. Я здивована, що ти ніколи не чув про ‘Rolling Stones’. 7. Було бажано, щоб він, наслідуючи сімейні традиції, вступив до юридичної школи. 8. Дивно, що вони поводяться, як діти. 9. Важливо, щоб усі документи були підписані. 10. Це несправедливо, що декілька привілейованих (a few privileged) продовжують акумулювати багатство. 11. Чудово, що вона сама взялась за це завдання. 12. Суттєво, щоб всі знали, що вони мають робити. 13. Для успіху будь-якої фірми важливо, щоб всі партнери працювали узгоджено. (be in complete accord)

Ex. 5What do you find strange, amazing, annoyingor disappointing about studying at university.

Complex Sentences with Purpose Clauses

why? Indicative

I must hurry up so that I will/ can catch the train.

Ann was in a hurry so that she could/ would catch the train.

Ann was in a hurry so that she wouldn’t/ shouldn’t miss the train.

Suppositional Mood

1. In present-time situations use present simple indicative or can/will + infinitive.

has done can

Smb does smth so thatsmb willdo smth

will do

You should keep milk in a fridge so thatit stays fresh.

Advice is given so that students will choose the best courses.

Les has bought a video camera so that he can film his holiday.

2. In past-time situations use could/would + infinitive.

had to do could

Smb did smth so thatsmbwoulddo smth

She gave up her job so that she could take care of her mother.

I gave Sam my address so that he would contact me.

3. The suppositional mood may be used in negative sentences but the indicative mood is also possible.

Smb did smth so thatsmbshouldn’tdo smth

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