UNIT I THE FORMS OF THE GERUND
paying / sleeping
being paid / -
having paid / having slept
having been paid / -
It should be pointed out that simple –ing forms are used for finished actions:
/ now regret saying (or having said) what I said.
This may be explained by the ability of some verbs to predetermine time reference of the action denoted by the verbal, the -ingforms in particular. It is possible to point out the verbs that predetermine the priority of the action denoted by the gerund, here belong the verbs:
accuse, apologise, blame, excuse, forgive, regret, remember, thank
-ing form is used for an action that happens before that of the first verb:
/ am absolutely sure I locked the door. I clearly remember locking the door.
You remember doing something after you have done:
I'll never forget meeting you for the first time (how I met you).
The verbs that presuppose that the action denoted by the gerund happen at the same time with that of the first verb: begin, continue, start, no on, enjoy, hate, like, prefer, try.
The verbs that presuppose that the action denoted by the ing-form follows the first verb: intend, need, want.
1.1. Read the following sentences. Observe the forms of the Gerund. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. He was tired and remembered saying to the Indian "OK, Kid. That's all."
2. I remember my dear mother teaching me a gentlewoman should always be able to control herself in public, however much she may give way in private.
3. I remember dancing vviih a man dressed as a brigand chief when I was a young girl.
4. "Why shouldn't I go for a walk?" 1 Ie was scared and ashamed of being scared.
5. Half the time I was ashamed of myself lor thinl ing so.
6. After supper Mr Jones had gone down to the kitchen and had demanded a bowl of cornflour for his wife who had complained of not Icelmu well
7. He knew his wife was perfectly capable of insisting on moving to a new house if the caprice got hold ol her.
8. He was smiling, and he said, "I'd like to quit, baby, but I don't know any other way to make money' The following week he tried gambling and lost
9. So I let her go at the month and I gave her a written reference saying she was honest and sober, but privately I warned Mrs I Awards against taking her
10. Getting no reply, she fetched George, and insisted on the door being broken open. They did so with the help of a chisel.
11. Numerous anonymous letters poured into Scotland Yard all accusing Mr Jones of having murdered his wife.
12. Do you ever think of going away? Other cities?
13. He had told her he had a good bit of money left over. But she realised it was no use asking questions.
14. Sir Henry was a man with a very vast experience of life. He made his decisions quickly without beating about the bush.
15. He had drawn quite near them without being observed.
16. The only thing that didn't bore him was the idea of hunting.
17. To be able to take the facts and look at them as facts - that seems to me the only logical method of arriving at the truth.
18. Now fortunately I am in the habit of observing closely.
19. And I've got another reason for suspecting her which 1 shall keep to myself.
20. He couldn't bear the thought of her getting married.
21. He couldn't figure a way of making money out of anything.
22. He had recovered somewhat by the time we all came away - mores the pity, because instead of keeping silent and looking ashamed of himself, he insisted on driving the horses himself.
23. We were in Paris ourselves last winter, because my grandfather let my father have some money to spend, and we went to Paris instead of buying new curtains tor my mother's bedroom.
24. Copper John took up his knife and fork again, and we went on eating.
25. As there seems little sense in prolonging this interview any further. I will wish you a very good night.
26. If there's a chance of saving the mine, I'm going to do it.
27. Why, no doubt there is a risk, just as every day in every man's life he risks breaking his neck when he steps outside his door.
28. ... even now, after all this time, we are looked upon as interlopers, there's no denying it.
29. He wanted to arrange a day's shooting with one of the officers. Perhaps he had had some difficulty in bringing the boat back.
30. If your sons feel like doing some honest work for a change 1 shall be delighted to employ them.
31. There are naturally one or two points that require clarifying before I make my final decision.
32. As I say, 1 didn't know what to do. I avoided seeing Rose again.
33. Since we are speaking plainly I may as well confess that I dislike doing anything for which I have no ability.
34. And instead of going home John went up to Norfolk to stay with an old Oxford friend.
35. "Please, please", said Barbara, "there's no sense in you two making a quarrel".
36. She was afraid of being overheard.
UNIT II. STRUCTURES WITH THE GERUND VERB + -ing
There are a number of verbs which are always followed by the gerund only. The most common are:
1. He tried to avoid answering my question.
2. Don't keep interrupting me while I'm speaking (Or: Don't keep on interrupting ...).
3. I don't fancy going out this evening.
4. She's a very interesting person. I always enjoy talking to her.
5. Have you ever considered going to live in another country?
6. She admitted stealing the money.
7. I really appreciate having time to relax.
8. She couldn't help smiling at him.
9. And why does everyone, myself included, always dislike hearing the truth?
10. He hadn't felt like laughing at all but all of a sudden he had laughed into her face.
2.1. Complete each sentence with one of the verbs: answer, apply, be. listen, make, see, try, use, wash, work, write.
1. He tried to avoid ... my question.
2. Could sou, please, stop ... so much noise?
3. I enjoy ...to music.
4. 1 considered ... for the job but in the end I decided against it.
5. If you walk into the road without looking about, you risk ... knocked down.
6. Jim is 65, but he isn't going to retire yet. He wants to carry on ...
7. I don't mind ... the phone as long as you pay for all your calls.
8. Hello! Fancy ... you here! What a surprise!
9. I've put off... the letter so many times. I really must do it.
10. What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody ... so stupid?
11. Sarah gave up ... to find a job in this country and decided to go abroad.
2.2. Finish off the following sentences in your own way using the gerund.
I. At weekends I enjoy ...
2. She's a very interesting person. I always enjoy ...
3 I'm not feeling very well. I don't fancy ...
4. I'm afraid, there aren't any chairs. I hope you don't mind ...
5. It was a lovely day, so I suggested ...
6. It was very funny. I couldn't stop ...
7. My car isn't very reliable. It keeps ...
8. Their son was ill and they had to put off...
9. It's not a good idea to travel during the rush-hour. It's better to avoid ...
2.3. Complete the sentences for each situation using -ing forms
1. What shall we do? We could go to the cinema. She suggested going to the cinema.
2. You broke into the shop. No. I didn't. He denied________________
3. You were driving too fast. Yes, it's true. Sorry! She admitted____________________
4. Please, turn down the volume on your radio. Certainly, no problems. He didn’t mind _______
5. How about going window-shopping? Oh, I don't know. I don't think I'm in the mood to go window-shopping. She didn't really feel__________________
6. What do you say to going fishing? I'd love to. But I can't. I have to study for my exams.
He didn't fancy__________.
2.4. Ask your friend (room-mate, neighbour) to do v ui a favour
Model:- Would you mind lending me your vacuum-cleaner?
- No, of course, not. (no, I wouldn't mind; No, of course, not; No problem; I'd be happy to).
- lend me your hair-drier
- give me a hand with this air-conditioner
- loan me some money until pay-day
- keep an eye on our house while we're away
- turn down the radio
- give a lift at home
- turn on the air-conditioner
- lend me your type-writer
- change the channel
NOTEAfter the verbs need, want, deserve, require and the adjective worth the-ing form is generally used and the meaning is passive:
This coat wants cleaning ( = needs to be cleaned)
The batteries in the radio need changing ( = they need to be changed).
Worth can be used in two structures:
a) with introductory "//" as a subject: // 's not worth (while) getting upset.
It was so late when we got home, it wasn 't worth (while) going to bed.
b) with a noun or pronoun as a subject:
/ don`t think newspapers are worth reading. This clock is hardly worth repairing.
2.5. Now you have to make sentences with want (need), deserve. Use the verbs in brackets.
Model: - This coat is rather dirty, (to clean) - It needs cleaning.
1. The room hasn't been painted for years, (to paint). It...
2. Your hair is too long, (to cut). It...
3. Those shoes are rather dirty, (to polish). They ...
4. This plant hasn't been watered for several days, (to water). It
5. The screws are loose, (to tighten). They ...
6. Your jeans are too long, (to cut up). They ...
7. The child is naughty, (to punish). He ...
8. The patient is very restless, (to look after). She ...
9. Your room is in disorder, (to fix up) It ...
2.6. Make up sentences with worth -ins or not worth -ing.
1. The film isn't as interesting as I expected it to be.
2. It would cost too much to repair this watch.
3. If you have time, you should go to the museum.
4. It's quite an interesting suggestion.
5. There's an interesting article in the paper today.
6. We can throw these old clothes away.
It's no fun
It's no use
It's no good
It's hardly any use
There's no point in
What's the use of
What's the point of
These structures express the negative attitude of the speaker
It`s no good complaining.
There's no telling what will happen.
It's no good his/ him apologising how the damage has been done (a possessive or accusative may be used).
2.7. Complete the sentences on the right.
1. Shall we get a taxi home?
2. If you need help, why don't you ask Tom?
3.1 don't really want to go out tonight.
4. Shall I phone Ann now?
5. Are you going to complain about what happened?
6. I strongly recommend you to go jogging. I'm concerned about your blood-pressure.
1. No, it's not far. It's not worth...
2. It's no use ... He won't be able to help us.
3. Well, stay at home. There's no point ... if you don't want to.
4. No, it's no good ... She won't be at home.
5. No, it's not worth ... Nobody will do anything about it.
6. It's no ... to persuade me You won't succeed.
2.8.Change the structure of the sentences so as to use the construction there's no + -ing:
Model: - When spring comes it's impossible to cross the river.
- When spring comes there's no crossing the river.
1. Once he started talking on his favourite subject, nothing would stop him.
2. You can never tell what he may do next.
3. She is so unbalanced. It's hardly possible to account for her moods.
4. The old man is very shrewd, you won't deceive him.
5. He's too stubborn. Don't even try to persuade him.
6. The iron is very old. It's impossible to fix it.
7. The TV set is out of order. You can't watch the film.
8. Jane is very upset. You'd better not speak with her now.
UNIT III. VERB + prep + -ing
A.Here are some verbs v ith this structure:
succeed (in) insist (on) think (of) dream (of) approve (of) decide (against) feel (like) look (forward)
Have you succeeded
I wouldn't dream
She doesn't approve
We have decided
I'm looking forward
findinga job yet?
paying for the meal.
buying a house.
asking them for money. gambling.
moving to London.
going out tonight?
With some of the verbs in A,you can use the structure verb + preposition + somebody+ -ing:
She doesn't approve
Weare all looking forward
B.The following verbs can have the structure verb + object + preposition + -ing:
congratulate (on) accuse (of)
preposition + ing
passing the exam.
suspect (of) prevent (from) stop (from*)
The police stopped
ofbeing a spy
fromcoming to see us?
from leaving the building
thank (for) forgive (for) warn (against)
I forgot to thank
fornot writing you.
against buying the car.
* You can also say "stop somebody doing" (without from).
So you can say:
• You can stop me doing what I want, or ... stop me fromdoing what I want.
Some of these verbs are often used in the passive. For example:
• / was accused of telling lies.
• The man was suspected of beinga spy.
• We were warned against buyingthe car.
3.1. Complete each sentence using only one word.
I. Our neighbours apologised for making, so much noise.
2. I feel lazy. I don't feel like................any work.
3. I wanted to go out alone but Joe insisted on......with me.
4. I'm fed up with my job. I'm thinking of...... something else.
5. We have decided against.........a new car because we can't really afford it.
6.1 hope you write to me soon. I'm looking forward to......from you.
7. The weather was extremely bad and this prevented us from........out.
8. The man who has been arrested is suspected of..........a false passport.
9.1 think you should apologise to Sue for.................so rude to her.
10. Some parents don't approve of their children...........a lot of television.
I1. I'm sorry I can't come to your party, but thank you very much for..........me.
3.2.Complete the sentences using a preposition + one of the following verbs (in the correct form): cause escape so help interrupt live play solve spend walk.
1. Do you feel like going out this evening?
2. It took us a long time but we finally succeeded..........the problem.
3. I've always dreamed...............in a small house by the sea.
4. The driver of the other car accused me..........the accident.
5. There was a fence around the lawn to stop people..........on the grass.
6. Forgive me................ you but may 1 ask you something?
7. Where are you thinking..........................your holiday this year?
8. The guards weren't able to prevent the prisoner..................
9.1 wanted to cook the meal by myself but Dave insisted....................me.
10. I'm sorry we've had to cancel our game of tennis tomorrow, I was really looking forward.............
UNIT IV. PREPOSITION + -ing form.
CONJUNCTION + -ing form
The clause with the -ing-form can come either before or after the main clause:
e.g. After working all evening, John felt tired.
What did you do after leaving school?
We like a hot drink before going to bed.
Before going out. I phoned Sarah.
Judy hasn't found a job since leaving school.
Carol went to work in spite of feeling ill.
Although feeling tired, David didn't want to stop.
By. instead of. without, for are used even in informal speech:
e.g. I went to the movies instead of studying for my Economics exam.
It's nice to go on holiday without having to worry about the money.
The burglars got into the house by breaking a window and climbing in.
You need a special tool for cutting grass.
Some more structures with the prepositions:
e.g. How about going window-shopping? What about going to see a ball game?
4.1. This is an article about a woman who is head of a super market group. Rewrite sentences with the underlined sentences. Use an -ing form after a conjunction or preposition instead of the underlined parts.
E.g.: After leaving school at 18, Elaine studied business management at Cranby Polytechnic.
Elaine Archer is a 34-year-old woman in a very important job. She's head of the huge Brisco Supermarkets group.
Elaine left school at 18 and then studied business management at Cranby Polytechnic. She left the Polytechnic, but she didn't take any exams. Elaine decided to see the world and then to make her home in Britain. She spent four years in the USA. She thought about her career during the time she was filling shelves in a supermarket.
As soon as she returned to Britain, Ms Archer bought a small food-store. She was soon the owner of a dozen stores in south-east England. She made her stores a success because she pleased the customers. When Brisco took over Archer stores, Elaine became south-east area manager of Brisco. She has risen to be head of the company in spite of the fact that she is a woman in a man's world. We certainly haven't heard the last of her.
UNIT V. be + Adjective + preposition + -ing
She was afraid of disturbinghim.
You are good at drawing.
He is fond of fishing.
I'm a postman. I'm used to walking.
I'm fed up with takingthe train to work.
Which mode of washing machine are you interested in purchasing?
5.6.Here is the list of unpleasant prohibitions. Say if you think likely that these things may happen. Use I'm afraid
- being bitten by a dog
- being robbed
- being killed in a plane crash -losing a job
- having an accident
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