Academic Vocabulary

Another important feature of English academic writing is a tendency to choose more formal alternatives when selecting words of different parts of speech.


English academic style makes use of formal verbs, often of Latin origin. In Ukrainian textbooks, such verbs are usually referred to as "general scientific verbs" (Ukr. 3aгальнонаукова лексикa).

15. Below are the most frequently used "scientific verbs " (in the left column) and the descriptions of their meanings (in the right column) arranged in groups of ten, alphabetically. Check your knowledge of the verbs by matching them with the descriptions of their meanings. Memorize the words you do not know actively.


1. accept 1. put in order

2. accomplish 2. reach by effort

3. account for 3. decide the importance and give reasons

4. achieve 4. have an influence on, act on

5. adjust 5. agree or recognize with approval

6. affect 6. make practical use of

7. apply 7. regulate

8. arrange 8. take as true before there is proof

9. assess 9. perform successfully

10. assume 10. explain the cause of











1. describe similarities or differences

2. arrive at an opinion

3. be similar in area and outline

4. keep away from

5. arrive at (knowledge, a theory) by reasoning

6. have relation to

7. finish

8. make clear

9. be in harmony

10. think about, regard


1. define 1. appear
2. derive from 2. lay stress on
3. determine 3. found, set up
4. emerge 4. state precisely the meaning of
5. emphasize 5. form a judgment about, calculate the value of
6. ensure 6. find out precisely
7. establish 7. guarantee
8. estimate 8. take as a starting point, source or origin
9. evaluate 9. concentrate on
10.D focus on 10. find out the value of











1. keep up

2 become concerned with something

3. point

4. pay no attention to

5. make a careful study of

6. make a suggestion

7. become greater in size

8. conclude

9. bring in

10. establish the identity of


1. observe 1. make
2. obtain 2. go before
3. occur 3. make smaller
4. omit 4. give, supply
5. perform 5. get
6. precede 6. watch carefully
7. proceed 7. go forward
8. produce 8. do
9. provide 9. leave out
1. reduce 10. happen


1. refer to 1. depend upon
2. regard 2. give a result
3. rely on 3. be enough for
4. require 4. turn to for information, etc
5. satisfy 5. change position
6. specify 6. make use of
7. suppose 7. consider
8. transfer 8. state or name definitely
9. utilize 9. demand
10. yield 10. guess, take as afact

Special advice:write out the verbs on a separate sheet and keep it at hand while writing in English: you will find this helpful. You may also add to this list other "general scientific verbs" that you will come across when reading literature in your

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