1. A person or thing performing an action is called the subject of the action. A person or thing acted upon is called an object of the action.
2. In the English language the verb has two voices: the Active Voice and the Passive Voice.
3. The Active Voice is used when the person or thing denoted by the subject of the sentence is the subject of the action expressed by the predicate.
4. The Passive Voice is used when the person or thing denoted by the subject of the sentence is an object of the action expressed by the predicate.
5. The tenses of the Passive Voice are formed by means of the auxiliary verb to be in the corresponding tense and Past Participle (Participle II) of the main verb.
6. The Future Continuous and the Perfect Continuous tenses are not used in the Passive Voice.
7. The tenses of the Passive Voice are used according to the same rules as the corresponding tenses of the Active Voice.
8. The Passive Voice is used when the speaker wants to say something about the object (not about the subject of the action). In this case the subject of the action is mostly not mentioned at all; otherwise it is expressed by a noun or pronoun with the preposition by or with.
9. A verb which may have a direct object is a transitive verb. A verb which is not used with a direct object is intransitive. In Russian only transitive verbs are used in the Passive Voice – the subject of a passive construction corresponds to the direct object of the active construction.
10. In English not only transitive but many intransitive verbs are used in the Passive Voice. The subject of a passive construction in English may correspond not only to a direct object of the active construction but also to an indirect or prepositional object.
11. The passive verb-forms are translated into Russian:
a.by verbs with the particle -ся (-сь);
b.by combinations of the verb быть with a short form of the Past
Participle Passive (краткое причастие страдательного залога); c.by verbs in the Active Voice in indefinite-personal sentences; d. if the subject of the action of a passive construction is indicated, the English Passive Voice may be rendered in Russian by the verb
in the Active Voice in a definite-personal sentence.
1. The new Department for Constitutional Affairs (formerly the Lord Chancellor’s Department) is responsible for the organization and smooth running of the courts, although much of the day-to-day running of the courts is carried outby Her Majesty’s Courts Service.
2. The House of Lords ismore correctly calledthe Appellate Committee of the House of Lords.
3. Only those cases, in which ‘leave to appeal’ (special permission) has been given, either by the Court of Appeal or by the House of Lords itself, will be heardthere.
4. The extraordinary term ‘In Ordinary’ simply means that they receive their salary from the ordinary Consolidated Fund (the Exchequer account at the Bank of England into which all revenues are paid); they are not paidby the House of Lords itself.
5. Normally, each appeal is heardby five Law Lords, although in some, rare instances cases are heardby a panel of seven or even nine.
6. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council was establishedby statute in 1833 to hear appeals from ‘any dominion or dependency of the Crown in any matter, civil or criminal’.
7. Other senior judges havealso been co-optedto sit in this court, as have distinguished judges from abroad. In February 2001 Dame Sian Elias, Chief Justice of New Zealand, became the first woman to sit in the Privy Council, when she was invitedto spend two weeks as a member of the court.
8. The rulings of the Privy Council arenormally not bindingon other courts, but they are of strong persuasive authority (the rulings do not have to be followed, but should be givenattention and great respect when courts are deciding what the law is).
9. The first sitting of the new Supreme Court was plannedto take place in 2008; until then the House of Lordsl continued as the final court of appeal.
10. The Queen’s Bench Division consists of about 80 High Court Judges, and from October 2005 has been headedby the new office of President of the Queen’s Bench Division.
11. County courts were introducedin 1846 to enable civil claims for small amounts to be heard quickly and cheaply.
12. This ‘regularity’ in standing by decisions has been describedas “a ‘sacred principle’ of English law, and it is rootedin the natural, human inclination of people to regard past experience and decisions as guides to future action, and to be able to conduct themselves with a degree of certainty about what the legal consequences of their actions, if any, will be.