Choose the words from the box and fill in the gaps.

valuable petroleum extraction renewable coal tax on consumption raw materials natural forestry fossil fuels natural gas

Natural resources (economically referred to as land or 1______________) are naturally forming substances that are considered 2______________in their relatively unmodified (3_____________) form. Thus, mining, 4_____________, fishing, hunting and 5_____________ are generally considered natural-resource industries.

Natural resources are mostly classified into 6______________ and non-renewable resources. Sometimes resources are classified as non-renewable even if they are technically renewable, just not easily renewed within a reasonable amount of time, such as 7_____________.

Some non-renewable resources can be renewable but take an extremely long time to renew. Fossil fuels, for example, take millions of years to form and so are not practically considered 'renewable'. Different non-renewable resources like oil, 8_____________, 9_____________ etc. have different levels of demand from different sectors like transportation and residences with each resource specializing for each sector. Many environmentalists propose a 10_______________ of non renewable resources. Non-renewable resources cannot be replaced or can only be replaced over thousands or millions of years.

8 Listen and fill in the gaps.

Mining is the extraction of 1_____________ or other 2_____________materials from the earth, usually from an 3_____________ body, vein or (coal) seam. Materials recovered by mining include 4_____________, 5______________, iron, uranium, 6______________, 7______________, limestone, oil shale, rock salt and potash. Any material that cannot be grown through 8______________ processes, or created 9_____________ in a 10_____________or 11______________, is usually mined. Mining in a wider sense comprises extraction of any non-renewable resource (e.g., petroleum, 12____________ or even 13______________).

Forestry is the 14_____________ and 15____________ of managing forests, tree plantations, and related natural resources. Silviculture, a related science, involves the growing and tending of trees and forests. Modern forestry generally concerns itself with: assisting forests to provide timber as raw material for 16______________ products; 17______________; natural water quality management; recreation; 18_____________ and community protection; employment; aesthetically appealing landscapes; 19______________ management; watershed management; erosion control; and a 'sink' for atmospheric 20________________.

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