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|folk - народний first aid –перша допомога inhabitants -жителі enrich -збагачувати former -колишній obstetrician -акушер podiatrist -ортопед detachment -загін defenders -захисники investigations -дослідження||phenomenon -феномен longevity -довголіття despite –незважаючи на treatment -лікування consequence -наслідок serum -сироватка invaluable -безцінний peasants -селяни|
2. Read and translate the text.
The history of medicine in Ukraine begins with the history of folk medicine. The first medical hospitals in Kyiv Rus were founded in the 11-th century.
In the 14-th and 15-th centuries new hospitals were built and many physicians gave the first aid to the inhabitants of Ukraine and the soldiers of Bohdan Khmelnytsky's troops.
Kyiv Academy was founded in 1632. It played a prominent role in the development of the Ukrainian medicine. Many graduates of the Academy continued to enrich their knowledge abroad and received their doctors' degrees there. Many former students of this Academy have become the well-known scientists. They are the epidemiologist D.S. Samoilovych, the obstetrician N.M. Ambodyk-Maximovych, the podiatrist S.F. Chotovytsky, the anatomist O.M. Shumlyansky and many others.
During the Crimean War (1854-1856), upon Pirogov's initiative the first detachment of nurses was trained and sent to Sevastopol to help its defenders. It gave the beginning of the organization "Red Cross".
In 1686 the first bacteriological station was organized in Odesa which was of great importance in the development of microbiology and epidemiology. The famous scientists I.I. Mechnikov and M.F. Gamaliya worked at this station and succeeded much in their investigations. Inspite of favourable conditions for the successful development of natural sciences in Russia many outstanding scientists worked in Ukraine. It is known that the brilliant scientist M.I. Pirogov and his followers, as V.O. Karavayev, O.F. Shimanovsky, M.V. Sklifosovsky and others made valuable contribution in the Ukrainian medicine.
The famous scientists V. P. Obraztsov and M. D. Strazhesko were founders of Kyiv therapeutist’ school. They made a huge progress in the field of cardiology. Academician V.P. Filatov founded the Institute of Eye diseases in Odesa. Many other outstanding scientists worked in Ukraine whose names are well known in the world.
3. Answer the questions:
✙ What does the history of medicine in Ukraine begin with?
✙ When were the first medical hospitals founded in Kyiv?
✙ When were new hospitals built?
✙ Whom did many physicians give the first aid to?
✙ When was Kyiv Academy founded?
✙ Where did many physicians receive their doctors' degrees?
✙ What former students of the Academy have become the well-known scientists?
✙ When was the first detachment of nurses trained?
✙ When and where was the first bacteriological station organized?