Scale modeling/dioramas

Replicas of real things in a smaller scale go back to prehistoric times, as small clay "dolls" and other children's toys have been found near known population areas. Greeks, Romans, and Persians took the form to a greater depth during their years of world domination, using scale replicas of enemy fortifications, coastal defense lines, and other geographic fixtures to plan battles.

At the turn of the Industrial Age through the 1920s, families could more often afford things such as electric trains, wind up toys (typically boats or cars) and the increasingly valuable tin toy soldiers.

Model engineering refers to building functioning machinery in metal, such as internal combustion motors and live steam models or locomotives. This is a demanding hobby, requiring a multitude of large and expensive tools, e.g., lathes and mills. This hobby originated in the United Kingdom in the late 19th century, later spread and flourished in the mid-20th century. Due to the expense and space required, it is becoming more rare.

Scale modeling as we know it today became popular shortly after World War II. Before 1946, children as well as adults were content in carving and shaping wooden replicas from block wood kits, often depicting enemy aircraft to help in identification in case of invasion.

With the advent of modern plastics, the amount of skill required to get the basic shape accurately shown for any given subject was lessened, making it easier for people of all ages to begin assembling replicas in varying scales. Superheroes, aeroplanes, boats, cars, tanks, artillery, and even figures of soldiers became quite popular subjects to build, paint and display. Although almost any subject can be found in almost any scale, there are common scales for such miniatures which remain constant today. The most popular scales for each subject are (in order of popularity):

Figures are probably the most variable of all subjects in terms of scale and are often referred to as their metric equivalent; for example, a 1:32 scale figure soldier is more commonly described as "54mm". Likewise other popular sizes are 90mm, 120mm and almost every increment in between. An example of a diorama hobby is Warhammer 40,000, from Games Workshop.

In addition to plastic kits, resin has become a popular material for "short-run" productions. The level of detail is often quite exquisite, and while more expensive than the typical plastic soldier, is much easier to work with and modify than White Metal or Pewter figures.

Scale modeling is no longer a high growth industry as it was during the 1960s and 1970s, but there are still thousands of retail shops selling kits, supplies, paints, and tools to support new and established hobbyists. There are more companies producing more varieties of kits on subjects than ever before, and the levels of detail has become unbelievably accurate with the advent of modern drafting and molding equipment, and digitized CAD software to drive accuracy to the 1000th of an inch.

With the increased costs of good kits moving upward and entertainment competition for youth moving more towards computers and video gaming in the home, the average age of the avid hobbyist is now much older than ever before — with adults making up the vast majority of enthusiasts. At the same time, there are probably more people building now than ever, and there is a large selection of supportive magazines such as Fine Scale Modeller, Military Miniatures in Review (MMiR) and Tamiya Magazine from every imaginable era. There are several modeling clubs in most cities, with the largest being International Plastic Modellers' Society (IPMS). IPMS has supports chapters and contests around the world.


Cooking requires applying heat to a food which usually, though not always, chemically transforms it, thus changing its flavour, texture, appearance, and nutritional properties. It encompasses a vast range of methods and tools and may be used to improve the digestibility of food. It may require the selection, measurement and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure in an effort to achieve the desired result. Constraints on success include the ambient conditions, tools and the skill of the individual cook.

The diversity of cooking worldwide is a reflection of the myriad nutritional, aesthetic, agricultural, agronomic, economic, cultural and religious considerations that impact upon it.

Cooking proper, as opposed to roasting, requires the boiling of water or oil in a receptacle, and was practised at least since the 10th millennium BC with the introduction of pottery. There is archaeological evidence of roasted foodstuffs, both animal and vegetable, in human (Homo erectus) campsites dating from the earliest known use of fire some 800,000 years ago.[citation needed]


Residential gardening most often takes place in or about a residence, in a space referred to as the garden. Although a garden typically is located on the land near a residence, it may also be located in a roof, in an atrium, on a balcony, in a windowbox, or on a patio or vivarium.

Gardening also takes place in non-residential green areas, such as parks, public or semi-public gardens (botanical gardens or zoological gardens), amusement and theme parks, along transportation corridors, and around tourist attractions and hotels. In these situations, a staff of gardeners or groundskeepers maintains the gardens.

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