Exercise 4. Stress shift. Mind the stress when reading these words.

Practice

Ex. 1. Sort the suffixes in the words below according to their class-changing function. The categories include the following:(There are two examples of each suffix.)

(a) N > N

(b) V > N

(c) A > N

(d) N/A > V

(e) N > A

(f) V > A

(g) N/A > Adv


broaden

syntactic

width

falsehood

closure

straighten

rhetorician

clockwise

refusal

vaccinate

gangster

stardom

warmth

twofold

trial

selfish

advisory

likelihood

friendless

politician

mobster

kingdom


facilitate

contradictory

boyish

seizure

manifold

stepwise

thankless

historic

penniless



Exercise 2: Minor Processes of Word Formation

1. Identify the process of word formation responsible for each of the following words. Try to determine the process before you consult a dictionary, though it may be necessary for you to do so.



a) curio

b) to laze

c) to network

d) to cohere

e) a sitcom

f) the muppets

g) a what-not

h) margarine

i) dystopia

j) serendipity

k) diesel

l) a ha-ha

m) to make up

n) to total

o) the hereafter

p) amphetamine

q) a construct

r) the chunnel

s) guestimate

t) canary

u) brain-gain

v) boojum

w) gaffe-slack

x) psycho

y) walkie-talkie

z) bonfire



Exercise 3. The words in column A have been created from the corresponding words in column B. Indicate the word formation process responsible for the creation of each word in column A.

Column A Column B
(a) stagflation stagnation + inflation
(b) nostril nosu + thyrl 'hole' (in Old English)
(c) bookie bookmaker
(d) van caravan
(e) Amerindian American Indian
(f) CD compact disc
(g) RAM random access memory
(h) televise television
(i) xerox xeroxography
(j) telathon television + marathon
(k) sci-fi science fiction
(l) elect election
(m) deli delicatessen
(n) scuba self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
(o) scavenge scavenger
(p) hazmat hazardous material

Exercise 4. Stress shift. Mind the stress when reading these words.

1. A convict's life was neither easy nor pleasant.

2. A rebel is a participant in a rebellion; or more generally, an individual who resists authority or control.

3. Can an Islamic state permitforeign hotel resorts?

4. Create, record and share the sounds you create anywhere to friends, family and the world with SoundCloud, the world's largest community of sound creators.

5. Five days had gone by since the events in Las Cruces, during which she had made her way slowly back to New York, taking advantage of all the means of transport available – plane, train, bus and automobile.

6. In order to work and live in the Netherlands, you will require appropriate work and residence permits.

7. RecordCollector is the world's leading authority on rare and collectable records.

8. Refreshments will be served after the talk followed by observing if weather permits.

9. Reservations are recommended since there are a limited number of quota permits available for each entry point.

10. Tariq Lutfi admits, “I don't know about the future of women football in Pakistan , but I can see some progress which I hadn't seen before.”

11. The British Convict transportation registers 1787-1867 database has been compiled from the British Home Office (HO) records which are available on microfilm.

12. This comprehensive index of all convicts transported to Tasmania and those who were convicted (through the convictsystem) in the colony was created by indexing all original records we hold from the beginning of transportation in 1804 until 1853 when transportation ceased.

13. What were the reasons why the colonists rebelled against England?

14. Women's Football in Pakistan has progressed but there is still a long way to go.

Stress shift

WHY ENGLISH IS SO HARD TO LEARN

We must polish the Polish furniture.

He could lead if he would get the lead out.

The farm was used to produce produce.

The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.

The soldier decided to desert in the desert.

This was a good time to present the present.

A bass was painted on the head of the bass drum.

When shot at, the dove dove into the bushes.

I did not object to the object.

The insurance was invalid for the invalid.

The bandage was wound around the wound.

There was a row among the oarsmen about how to row.

They were too close to the door to close it.

The buck does funny things when the does are present.

They sent a sewer down to stitch the tear in the sewer line.

To help with planting, the farmer taught his sow to sow.

The wind was too strong to wind the sail.

After a number of injections my jaw got number.

Upon seeing the tear in my clothes I shed a tear.

I had to subject the subject to a series of tests.



How can I intimate this to my most intimate friend?

I read it once and will read it again

I learned much from this learned treatise.

I was content to note the content of the message.

The Blessed Virgin blessed her. Blessed her richly.

It’s a bit wicked to over-trim a short wicked candle.

If he will absent himself we mark him absent.

I incline toward bypassing the incline.

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